ILLITERACY AND POVERTY AS PRECURSORS TO THE PREVALENCE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN INDIGENOUS NIGERIAN COMMUNITIES
Indigenous communities in Nigeria are characterized by a negative pattern which pervades the domestic setting of family homes. The negative pattern of domestic violence has led to the breakdown of homes, displacement of family members, estrangement of parents from children, and in cases where physical violence is exerted and severe, it may lead to fatal injuries or even death. Since it is trite that a problem cannot be effectively rectified if its cause is unknown, this paper identifies illiteracy and poverty as the triggering causative elements of domestic violence in indigenous Nigerian family homes. Illiteracy and poverty are prominent features of indigenous Nigerian communities, and this paper posits that there is a direct correlation between these factors and the pervasiveness of domestic violence in these communities. Adopting a qualitative research methodology, this paper considers the positions of existing literatures on the subject matter. To check the frequency of the practice, this study recommends that there should be a sensitization of the members of the public of the menace of domestic violence and its dangers, creation of an effective legal regime protecting and enforcing the rights of the victims, creating empowerment opportunities for the victims and strengthening the relevant institutions.
UNDERSTANDING THE POSITION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW ON THE USE CLUSTER MUNITIONS
In the last century, the world has witnessed two world wars, one cold war, several genocides and unending insurgencies. Globalization, has spurred the need for nations of the world through their representative governments, to interact with one other in the guise to foster better relationships amongst themselves, maintain world peace and lead better lives for their countrymen. In the course of this unavoidable interaction between them, there is surely bound to be acrimony; acrimony that many times than not lead to loss of human lives directly or indirectly . The international community, with the aid of numerous international conferences and conventions, has in its little way embedded provisions that see to the reduction of suffering during armed conflict. Some of these provisions concern techniques used while some concern personnel use and some other concern weapons used. According to Sun Tzu in his book ‘Art of War’ the essence of war is not to totally annihilate ones enemy but to incapacitate them in the most skillful way. This conclusion is exemplified in his evergreen quote: “Generally in war the best policy is to take a state intact; to win it is inferior to this. Do not put a premium on killing. To capture the enemy’s army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a battalion, a company and a five man squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill but to subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill”.