The Role of The African Union in De-Escalating The Effects of the Ukraine-Russian Crisis

Publication Date : 23/03/2023


Author(s) :

CHUKWUMA CHISOM.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 4
,
Issue 1
(03 - 2023)



Abstract :

The world has always paid enormous price as a result of armed conflicts. All spheres of countries' development are affected whenever two nations dive into major armed crisis but the economy has time and again proven to always receive the worst strike. Ukraine-Russian crisis has run aground the world's most integral aspects of economy expansion and growth ranging from agriculture, education, energy to infrastructural development. In the light of this background, this essay does not only examine the effects of Ukraine-Russian crisis but went further with the important steps the African Union needs to take in other to de-escalate them.


No. of Downloads :

10


An Impact Assessment Of Work Hour Regulations On Employee Productivity By Using The M.L.S. Framework

Publication Date : 10/03/2023


Author(s) :

NIRAJ KUMAR SETH.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 4
,
Issue 1
(03 - 2023)



Abstract :

Employee productivity measures the output produced in physical or monetary terms on an average by each employee per unit time. Labour laws across the world have mainly been driven by the concern for labour welfare and to put an end to labour exploitation. However, the economic rationale behind such laws have not been fully explored. Some nations around the world have enacted labour laws on maximum standard work hours allowed per week. Such laws are justified mostly on the grounds of emancipation of workers and as a step towards labour welfare. This research work goes beyond purely welfare-based arguments and explores the socio-economic basis of such laws. The paper studies labour laws on work hours around the world as the first step. Secondly, it measures employee productivity in top five OECD economies and the five BRICS nations by a quantitative tool known as ‘The National Employee Productivity Ratio’. Thirdly, it extends the analysis by measuring employee productivity in the 4 largest Information Technology companies in the U.S. and India each, with the help of another tool known as ‘The Company-wide Employee Productivity Scale’. The two tools, known collectively as ‘The M.L.S. Framework on Employee Productivity’, have been devised by the author to study the average levels of employee productivity in nations and companies. Fourthly, the paper investigates into the relationship between the standard maximum number of work hours under labour laws in countries and employee productivity and analyses the reasons behind such relationship. Finally, it concludes that work hour regulations that put a ceiling on maximum standard work hours do not harm employee productivity. On the contrary, such regulations have a positive influence on employee productivity.


No. of Downloads :

7


Law and War in the International System: Striking A Balance Between International Law And International Politics

Publication Date : 10/03/2023


Author(s) :

Joseph Matawa.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 4
,
Issue 1
(03 - 2023)



Abstract :

The existence of a strong international order rests on the foundation of global peace and security. That is why the maintenance of peace and the prohibition of the use of force in the conduct of international relations lies at the core of modern international law. Sadly, and all too often, states resort to the use of force in pursuit of national interest and to achieve some geopolitical objective. This has raised questions as to the effectiveness of international law in preventing armed conflicts and the role international politics as presently structured, understood and practiced plays in fomenting hostilities in the global scene. Using the Russia-Ukraine conflict as a point of reference, this essay will consider the implications of such conflicts in international law and politics. To be specific, we shall consider the relationship between International Law and International Politics, the not so effective measures of international law in preventing armed conflicts and explore the possibility of utilising international politics to supplement international law efforts in maintaining global peace.


No. of Downloads :

3


Rule of Law against the Rule of Force in The Russian-Ukraine Crises

Publication Date : 10/03/2023


Author(s) :

Eric Chigozie Ibe Esq , Asso. Prof. Halima Doma.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 4
,
Issue 1
(03 - 2023)



Abstract :

The United Nations Charter has clearly prohibited the use of force by a state against another state. This policy was put in place with intent to maintain international peace, stability, and respect for the sovereignty of individual nations. Russia annexed Crimea from Ukraine in March 2014 and subsequently invaded Ukraine in February 2022 which has since then been carrying out attacks on Ukraine. This article examined how Russia violated the prohibition of the use of force under international law by invading Ukraine and annexing part of its territory, and the possibility of Russia facing the desired legal consequences. The authors in achieving this objective resorted to the doctrinal approach of legal research which is library based. It was discovered that Russia has clearly violated the international laws prohibiting the use of force. However, the possibility of obtaining remedy against Russia pose a major challenge. First, ICC lacks the jurisdiction to prosecute Russia because both Russia and Ukraine are non-parties to the Rome Statute and its amendments on aggression. Second, any referral by the UN Security Council will be vetoed by Russia being one of the five permanent members of the Council. Lastly, prosecution at national courts may be impeded by immunity of Heads of States and public officials. The evident option for Ukraine is to explore setting an international tribunal either via the UN, ICC, or agreement with an international organisation or other states. Key Words – Rule of Law, Rule of Force, Crime of Aggression, International Criminal Court.


No. of Downloads :

4


Intellectual Property, The African Continental Free Trade Agreement, Harnessing and Protecting Modern Technology in Africa

Publication Date : 10/03/2023


Author(s) :

Promise Okezie.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 4
,
Issue 1
(03 - 2023)



Abstract :

The Ubuntu concept emphasizes the realization of one’s self through the realization of another, and it is this concept that forms the foundational philosophy underpinning the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (herein AfCFTA). The AfCFTA establishes an ambitious trade pact to form the world’s largest free trade area by connecting almost 1.3billion people across 54 African countries. Thus, the AfCFTA, emphasizes the realization of individual countries within Africa through the realization of the African region. One of the concerns of the AfCFTA is the promotion of innovation and enterprise through the protection of the intellectual property rights of African entrepreneurs. The big question is how well has the AfCFTA addressed the issues of fragmentation of various laws across Africa especially in relation to filing of patent and registration of trademarks. This paper finds that the monotonous patent filing requirement in various countries in Africa is one of the barriers facing young entrepreneur in Africa. This paper suggests the move from national legislation, to supra national legislation so as to achieve a harmonized and standardized market within the African region which would solve the problem of having fragmented national laws and requirement.


No. of Downloads :

4


Article isn't published yet.

Understanding the Position of International Humanitarian Law on the Use of Cluster Munitions

Publication Date : 11/05/2021


Author(s) :

Taiwo Abiodun-Oni Ibukunoluwa.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 2
,
Issue 2
(05 - 2021)



Abstract :

In the last century, the world has witnessed two world wars, one cold war, several genocides and unending insurgencies. Globalization, has spurred the need for nations of the world through their representative governments, to interact with one other in the guise to foster better relationships amongst themselves, maintain world peace and lead better lives for their countrymen. In the course of this unavoidable interaction between them, there is surely bound to be acrimony; acrimony that many times than not lead to loss of human lives directly or indirectly . The international community, with the aid of numerous international conferences and conventions, has in its little way embedded provisions that see to the reduction of suffering during armed conflict. Some of these provisions concern techniques used while some concern personnel use and some other concern weapons used. According to Sun Tzu in his book ‘Art of War’ the essence of war is not to totally annihilate ones enemy but to incapacitate them in the most skillful way. This conclusion is exemplified in his evergreen quote: “Generally in war the best policy is to take a state intact; to win it is inferior to this. Do not put a premium on killing. To capture the enemy’s army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a battalion, a company and a five man squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill but to subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill”.


No. of Downloads :

15


Shadows of a Time Past: Reportage on the Incidences of War Commercialisation in Selected African Countries

Publication Date : 28/09/2022


Author(s) :

Taiwo Abiodun-Oni.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 3
,
Issue 1
(09 - 2022)



Abstract :

Nations go to war for numerous reasons, some of which are justifiable while others are egotistical. The African continent has had its fair share of conflict; even though mostly of an non-international nature, these conflicts are still very much alive in the many states that make up the continent. Foreign governments and corporations seem to have found fortunes in these misfortunes and have been capitalizing on the clusters of non-international armed conflicts as opportunities for pecuniary gains. The average African state has a weak and poorly armed military, hence, it is often the case that governments outsource this important task to private mercenaries, lobbyists and in rare case, other sovereign nations. This paper adopted the historiogaphical method to produce a detailed reportage of the incidences and activities of private mercenaries, lobbyists and other foreign interests profiteering from armed conflicts in selected African countries; Libya and Sierra Leone. The paper noted that the foundational cause of the weak state the average African military is not unconnected to colonization which on many fronts has caused retardation to both structural and idealistic Africa. The paper recommended that governments must begin the process of decolonization of the African legal order and that foreign governments and foreign mercenary groups must be held responsible for actions arising out of their actions during these conflicts.


No. of Downloads :

0


Fundamental Human Rights Enforcement Procedure in Nigeria and its Challenges

Publication Date : 14/07/2022


Author(s) :

Dare, Olukunmi Jacob.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 3
,
Issue 1
(07 - 2022)



Abstract :

Fundamental human rights are those rights that go to the core of the human existence, liberty and dignity. In essence, when they are infringed upon, it is the very existence of humans that is threatened. In Nigeria, these rights are entrenched in the whole of Chapter IV of the 1999 Constitution. Considering that the guarantee of fundamental human rights does not translate to its enforcement, enforcement of fundamental human rights are not easy tasks as they ought to be in this present day and time. Many people whose fundamental human rights have been, are being or likely to be infringed have little or no knowledge about these rights, thus are unable to seek redress. Furthermore, when the barricade of knowledge of these rights is shattered, there remains the hurdle of the proper procedure to be surmounted. In the procedure also, there are other challenges that have made the enforcement of fundamental human rights a daunting task in Nigeria. The work seeks to bring perspective to the procedure for enforcing fundamental human rights and the challenges that has plagued same in Nigeria, as well as proffer possible way of the problems. Keywords: Rights; Enforcement; Procedure; Challenges


No. of Downloads :

10


A World on the Brink of Hostilities: Striking a Balance between International Law and International Politics

Publication Date : 21/06/2022


Author(s) :

Akinyemi Akinwumi Heritage.


Volume/Issue :
Volume 3
,
Issue 1
(06 - 2022)



Abstract :

ABSTRACT Notwithstanding the sacrosanct provisions of Article 2 (4) of the UN Charter, hostilities motivated by national interest and international politics have always been a commonplace occurrence on the international scene. While States are expected to either refrain from hostilities or at least ensure that any hostilities in international relations are justified by indisputable international law principles, the trend around the globe seems to be moving in quite the opposite direction. This has thus raised questions as to whether States have indeed in practice been able to strike a balance between international law and international politics by ensuring adherence to strict principles of international law in their relationship with other States. Relying on this backdrop, this essay is a scholastic attempt at exploring the adherence of States to international law in instances where it conflicts with international politics and national interest, especially those interests only capable of being achieved through hostility. In doing this, it shall begin by conceptualizing relevant terms. It shall then proceed to explore trends of hostility across the international scene, particularly those manifestly occasioned by international politics, and examine how States have attempted to justify or align their decisions with international law. Finally, it shall conclude by providing recommendations poised to enhance the relevance and enforceability of international law and enforce the compliance of States’ decisions with it.


No. of Downloads :

24